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APA Format Style Guide: Books and Reference Works

This guide will assist you in writing research papers using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style. It will help explain formatting your paper as well as proper citation for various resources.

Basic Citation

Print Books, Ebooks, Reference Works

Author Date Title Source - Publisher Source - DOI or URL

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B.

Name of Group.

Editor, E.E. (Ed.).

Editor, E.E., & Editor, F.F. (Eds.).

(2020)

Title of book.

Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).

Title of book [Audiobook].

Title of book (E.E. Editor, Ed.).

Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).

Publisher Name.

First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxxxxxx

Edited Chapters and Entries in Reference Works

Chapter Author Date Chapter Title Source - Edited Book Information Source - DOI or URL

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B.

Name of Group.

(2020). Title of chapter.

In E.E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name.

In E.E. Editor & F.F. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol 2, pp 212-255). Publisher Name.

https://doi.org/xxxx

httpsL//xxxx

 

Books and Ebooks

Remember to indent the second and following lines when writing your reference list entries!

Authored Book with a DOI

Brown, L.S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Brown, 2018)
  • Narrative Citations: Brown (2018)

Authored Book, no DOI, from most academic databases or in print

Stoneman, R. (2008). Alexander the Great: A life in legend. Yale University Press.

  • Parenthetical Citation - (Stoneman, 2008)
  • Narrative Citation -  Stoneman (2008)

Authored ebook or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.). [Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http://bit.ly/2G0Bpbl

Christian,B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co. http://a.co/7qGBZak

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Cain, 2012); (Christian & Griffiths, 2016)
  • Narrative Citations: Cain (2012); Christian and Griffiths (2016)

Authored Book with Editor credited on Book Cover

Meadows, D.H. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Meadows, 2008)
  • Narrative Citations: Meadows (2008)

Edited Book with a DOI, with multiple publishers

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Schmid, 2017)
  • Narrative Citatons: Schmid (2017)

Edited Book, in Print

Hacker Hughes, J. (Ed.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Hacker Hughes, 2017)
  • Narrative Citations: Hacker Hughes (2017)

Edited Ebook or Audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL

Pridham, K.F., Limbo, R., & Schroeder, M. (Eds.). (2018). Guided participation in pediatric nursing practice: Relationship-based teaching and learning with parents, children, and adolescents. Springer Publishing Company. http://a.co/0IAiVgt

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Pridham et al., 2018)
  • Narrative Citations: Pridham et al. (2018)

Book in another language

Amano, N., & Kondo, H. (2000). Nihongo no goi tokusei [Lexical characteristics of Japanese language] (Vol. 7). Sansei-do.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1966). La psychologie de l'enfant [The psychology of the child]. Quadrige.

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Amano & Kondo, 2000); (Piaget & Inhelder, 1966)
  • Narrative Citations: Amano and Kondo (2000); Piaget and Inhelder (1966)

Book republished in translation

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.; 2nd ed.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1966)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Piaget & Inhelder, 1966/1969)
  • Narrative Citations: Piaget and Inhelder (1966/1969)

Republished Book, Ebook, or Audiobook

Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams: The complete and definitive text (J. Strachey, Ed. & Trans.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1900)

Rowling, J.K. (2015). Harry Potter and the sorcerer's stone (J. Dale, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Pottermore Publishing. http://bit.ly/2TcHchx (Original work published 1997)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Freud, 1900/2010); (Rowling, 1997/2015)
  • Narrative Citations: Freud (1900/2010); Rowling (1997/2015)

One Volume of a multivolume work

Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol 1). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470561119

Travis, C.B., & White, J.W. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol. 1. History, theory, and battlegrounds. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000059-000

  • Parenthetical Citatons: (Fiske et al., 2010); (Travis & White, 2018)
  • Narrative Citations: Fiske et al. (2010); Travis and White (2018)

Book in a Series

Madigan, S. (2019). Narrative therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000131-000

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Madigan, 2019)
  • Narrative Citations: Madigan (2019)

Diagnostic Manual

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/

  • Parenthetical Citations, with abbreviation included: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (11th ed.; ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2019)
    • Subsequent Parenthetical Citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013); (World Health Organization, 2013)
  • Narrative Citations, with abbreviation included: American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5); World Health Organization's (2019) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (11th ed.; ICD-11)
    • Subsequent Narrative Citations: American Psychiatric Association (2013); World Health Organization (2019)

Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved June 14, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved May 5, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Zalta, E.N. (Ed.).(2019). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/

  • Parenthetical Citations: (American Psychological Association, n.d.); (Merriam-Webster, n.d.); (Zalta, 2019)
  • Narrative Citations: American Psychological Association (n.d.); Merriam-Webster (n.d.); Zalta (2019)

Anthology

Gold, M. (Ed.). (1999). The complete social scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10319-000

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Gold, 1999)
  • Narrative Citations: Gold (1999)

Ancient Greek or Roman work

Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S.H. Butcher, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.html (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994)
  • Narrative Citations: Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.E./1994)

Shakespeare

Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B.A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Shakespeare, 1623/1995)
  • Narrative Citations: Shakespeare (1623/1995)

Chapters

Remember to indent the second and following lines of the reference entry!

Chapter in an Edited Book with a DOI

Balsam, K.F., Martell, C.R., Jones, K.P., & Safren, S.A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G.Y. Iwamasa & P.A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (2nd ed., pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000119-012

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Balsam et al., 2019)
  • Narrative Citations: Balsam et al. (2019)

Chapter in an Edited Book without a DOI, from academic database or print version

Weinstock, R., Leong, G.V., & Silva, J.A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Weinstock et al., 2003)
  • Narrative Citations: Weinstock et al. (2003)

Chapter in an Edited Ebook without a DOI, with nondatabase URL

Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American Holocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press. http://a.co/36xRhBT

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Tafoya & Del Vecchio, 2005)
  • Narrative Citations: Tafoya and Del Vecchio (2005)

Chapter in an edited book in another language

Carcavilla Gonzalez, N. (2015). Terapia sensorial auditiva: Activacion cerebral por medio de la musica [Auditory sensory therapy: Brain activation through music]. In J.J. Garcia Meilan (Ed.), Guia practica de terapias estimulativas en el Alzheimer (pp. 67-86). Editorial Sintesis. https://www.sintesis.com/guias-professionales-203/guia-practica-de-terapias-estimulativas-en-el-alzheimer-libro-1943.html

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Carcavilla Gonzalez, 2015)
  • Narrative Citations: Carcavilla Gonzalez (2015)

Chapter in an edited book, republished in translation

Heidegger, M. (2008). On the essence of truth (J. Sallis, Trans.). In D.F. Krell (Ed.), Basic writings (pp. 111-138). Harper Perennial Modern Thought. (Original work published 1961)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Heidegger, 1961/2008)
  • Narrative Citations: Heidegger (1961/2008)

Chapter in an edited book, reprinted from a journal article

Sacchett, C., & Huphreys, G.W. (2004). Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts. In D.A. Balota & E.J. March (Eds.), Cognitive psychology: Key readings in cognition (pp. 100-108). Psychology Press. (Reprinted from "Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts," 1992, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 9[1], 73-86, http://doi.org/d4vb59)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Sacchett & Humphreys, 1992/2004)
  • Narrative Citations: Sacchett and Humphreys (1992/2004)

Chapter in an edited book, reprinted from another book

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). The social ecology of human development: A retrospective conclustion. In U. Bronfenbrenner (Ed.), Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development (pp. 27-40). SAGE Publications. (Reprinted from Brain and intelligence: The ecology of child development, pp. 113-123, by F. Richardson, Ed., 1973, National Educational Press)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Bronfenbrenner, 1973/2005
  • Narrative Citations: Sacchett and Humphreys (1973/2005)

Chapter in a volume of a multivolume work

Goldin-Meadow, S. (2015) Gesture and cognitive development. In L.S. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 2. Cognitive processes (7th ed., pp. 339-380). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy209

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Goldin-Meadow, 2015)
  • Narrative Citations: Goldin-Meadow (2015)

Work in an Anthology

Lewin, K. (1999). Group decision and social change. In M. Gold (Ed.), The complete social scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 265-284). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10319-010 (Original work published 1948)

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Lewin, 1999)
  • Narrative Citations: Lewin (1999)

Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with group author

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/positive-transference

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

  • Parenthetical Citations: (American Psychological Association, n.d.); (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
  • Narrative Citations: American Psychological Association (n.d.); Merriam-Webster (n.d.)

Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with individual author

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism

  • Parenthetical Citations: (Graham, 2019)
  • Narrative Citations: Graham (2019)

Wikipedia entry

List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_oldest_companies&oldid=878158136

  • Parenthetical Citations: ("List of Oldest Companies," 2019)
  • Narrative Citations: "List of Oldest Companies" (2019)

Remember!

  • Capitalize only the first word in the document title and any proper nouns.  If there is a colon in the title (a subtitle), capitalize only the first word after the colon and any proper nouns.
  • Alphabetize your reference list by the first word of the citation, usually the author's last name.  If there is no author, alphabetize by the first main word in the title, ignoring "a," "an," or "the."
  • Double space all of the citations on your reference list.
  • Indent the second and following lines of the citation 5 to 7 spaces.

Changes from 6th Edition to 7th Edition

In the 7th edition, up to 20 authors should now be included in a reference list entry.  For sources with more than 20 authors, after the 19th author, any additional authors' names are replaced with an ellipsis (...) followed by the final listed authors' name.  Do not place an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and URLs are now presented as hyperlinks for electronic sources.

The label DOI is no longer used for entries that include a DOI.

The words "Retrieved from" (preceding the URL or DOI) are now only used when a retrieval date is also provided to the citation.

New guidelines describe how to use DOIs and URLs when citing sources obtained from academic research databases or online archives.  In short, you should end the database/archive portion of the citation entry with a period, then provide the DOI or URL.

Publisher location is no longer included in the reference.

For ebooks, the format, platform, or device is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included.