Citations for books may include many different elements, many of which are also included in other types of sources. The main elements are author, title, edition, volume, series, facts of publication, page numbers and locators. You may also need to include information such as chapter or section of the book.
Give the name of the author exactly as it appears on the title page in the same order. For notes entries, list authors' names in standard order (first name first). See the examples below:
1. Ankhi Mukherjee, What is a Classic? Postcolonial Rewriting and Invention of the Canon (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013), 184-85.
2. G.J. Barker-Benfield, Abigail and John Adams: The Americanization of Sensibility (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 499.
For bibliography entries, list authors' names in inverted order (last name first). Names of additional authors should follow but not be inverted.
Barker-Benfield, G.J. Abigail and John Adams: The Americanization of Sensibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Kinder, Donald R., and Allison Dale-Riddle. The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
If the book has an editor or translator listed as well as an author, list the author as above. Add the editor or translator after the book's title. If there is an editor and a translator, list both in the order that they are listed on the title page. In notes, insert the abbreviation "ed." or "trans." before their names.
3. Elizabeth I, Collected Works, ed. Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 102-4.
4. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Science of Logic, ed. and trans. George di Giovanni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 642-43.
5. The Noe Jitrik Reader: Selected Essays on Latin American Literature, ed. Daniel Balderston, trans. Susan E. Benner (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2005), 189.
In bibliography entries, insert the phrase "Edited by" or "Translated by" before the editor or translator's name.
Elizabeth I. Collected Works. Edited by Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Science of Logic. Edited and translated by George di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Jitrik, Noe. The Noe Jitrik Reader: Selected Essays on Latin American Literature. Edited by Daniel Balderston. Translated by Susan E. Benner. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2005.
If an editor or translator is listed in place of the author's name, use that person's name in the author's slot. Add the abbreviation "ed." or "trans," after the name.
If a publication is issued by a corporation, organization, association, or commission, list the organization in place of the author.
Treat a widely known pseudonym as if it were the author's name (ex. Mark Twain).
If the author's name is not widely known or is guessed, include the name in brackets with a question mark if uncertain. ( [James Hawkes?]) Do not put "Anonymous" in place of the author's name; instead start the entry with the title. If the author is listed on the title page as "Anonymous," use "Anonymous" in place of the author's name.
Include book titles and subtitles. Both should be italicized; subtitles are separated from titles with a colon. Most titles and subtitles will be capitalized in headline style. For titles that are not in English, use sentence style capitalization.
Preserve any spelling, hyphenation, and punctuation of the original title.
Use a comma to set off dates at the end of a title or subtitle, even if the punctuation is not included in the original. If the date includes a preposition ('from 1920 to 1945'), do not include a comma.
If the title of a work includes the title of another work, enclose the included title in quotation marks.
If the title includes text that would normally be italicized, such as species names or names of ships, set the terms in roman type.
When the title ends with a question mark or exclamation point, do not follow it with any other punctuation marks.
For titles published before 1800, include all original spelling and punctuation. Retain the original capitalization, even if it does not follow the normal format.
If you add an English translation to a foreign language title, enclose it in brackets using sentence style capitalization.
1. Phillip Marsden, Rising Ground: A Search for the Spirit of Place (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 113-14.
2. Romain Hayes, Subhas Chandra Bose in Nazi Germany: Politics, Intelligence, and Propaganda, 1941-43 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 151-52.
3. Elisabeth Ladenson, Dirt for Art's Sake: Books on Trial from "Madame Bovary" to "Lolita" (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007), 17.
4. Alan Light, Let's Go Crazy: Prince and the Making of "Purple Rain" (New York: Atria Books, 2014), 88.
5. T. Hugh Pennington, When Food Kills: BSE, E. coli, and Disaster Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 15.
6. Jose Reveles, Échale la culpo a la heroina: De Iguala a Chicago (New York: Vintage Español, 2016), 94.
Sorenson, John L,, and Carl Johanessen, World Trade and Biological Exchanges before 1492. Blomington, IN: iUniverse, 2009.
Some works are published in more than one edition, which can vary in style, format, or both. Always include information about which edition was consulted, unless it is the first edition.
If a book is a 'revised' or second edition, it has been republished with significant content changes. When consulting an edition other than the first, include the number or description of the edition (2nd ed. or rev. ed.). Include only the publication date of the edition you are using.
If a book is reissued or published in more than one format, for example as an ebook, record the facts of publication for the format you consulted. If the reprinted edition is published a year or two after the original date, or is a reprint of an older work, you may include the information for both editions in your citation.
1. Paul J. Bolt, Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford Jr., eds., American Defense Policy, 8th ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 157-58.
2. Randall Jerrell, Pictures from an Institution: A Comedy (1954: repr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 79-80.
Foley, Douglas E. Learning Capitalist Culture: Deep in the Heart of Tejas. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
Levitt, Steven D., and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explains the Hidden Side of Everything. Rev. ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.
Dickens, Charles. Pictures from Italy. 1846. Reprint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Include information concerning volume when the source is part of a multi-volume work.
To cite a specific volume that carries its own title, list the title of the multi-volume work as a whole, followed by the volume number and title of the specific volume. Give the publication information for the specific volume. Abbreviate volume as 'vol.' and use arabic numbers for the volume number.
If volumes are not individually titled, list each volume separately in the bibliography. In the note, include the volume number (without vol.) immediately before the page number, separated by a colon and no intervening space.
When citing a specific volume, include information about the volume editors or authors, as well as the information about editors and authors of the multi-volume work.
To cite a multi-volume work as a whole, give the title, total number of volumes, and the full span of publication dates.
1. Hamid Naficy, A Social History of Iranian Cinema, vol. 4, The Globalizing Era, 1984-2010 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012), 44.
2. Muriel St. Cloud Byrne, ed., The LIsle Letters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 4:243.
3. Barbara T. Mundy, "Mesoamerican Cartography," in The HIstory of Cartography, ed. J. Briam Harley and David Woodward, vol. 2, bk. 3. Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Austrailian, and Pacific Societies, ed. David Woodward and G Malcolm Lewis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 233.
Naficy, Hamid. A Social History of Iranian Cinema. Vol. 4. The Globalizing Era, 1984-2010. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.
Byrne, Muriel St. Cloud, ed. The LIsle Letters. Vols. 1 and 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Carson, Claybourne, ed. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. Vol. 7, To Save the Soul of America, January 1961-August 1962, edited by Tenisha Armstrong. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014.
Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951-63.
If a book belongs to a series, you may choose to include information about the series in the citation. Place the series information after the title and any volume or edition information and before the facts of publication.
Use headline style capitalization, omitting the initial 'the.'
The series editor is usually omitted, but can be included after the series title. If you include both series editor and volume number, the number is preceded by 'vol.'
1. Blake M. Hausman, Riding the Trail of Tears, Native Storiers: A Series of American Narratives (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011), 25.
Lunning, Frenchy, ed. World Renewal. Mechademia to. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
The facts of publication usually include three elements: the place (city) of publication, the publisher's name, and the date (year) of publication.
In notes, this information is enclosed in parentheses; in bibliographies, they are not.
1. Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2015), 122-23.
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2015.
If the city or location of the publisher is not well known , add the abbreviation of the state, province, or country. If the location is unknown, use the abbreviation 'n.p.' or 'N.p.' in place of a city name.
The publisher's name should be listed exactly as it is found in the source, even if it has changed since. If the publisher is unknown, just use the place of publication and the year.
The publication date consists generally only of a year, no month or day. If the date is unknown, use the abbreviation 'n.d.' in place of the year.
Page numbers and other information used to identify the location of a cited passage generally only appear in notes, and not in bibliography entries. An exception to this rule is when you cite a specific chapter or section of a book in the bibliography; in this case, the range of the pages cited are included in the bibliography.
Locators are usually the last item in the note. The word 'page' or abbreviations 'p.' or 'pp.' are omitted. Use arabic numbers, unless the source uses roman numerals in the original.
If you are citing a chapter or part of the book instead of a smaller section, use the abbreviation for type of division in place of the page numbers (chap./pt./sec.).
1. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 145-46.
In most cases, you cite the main title of any book that offers a continuous argument, narrative, or theme. Sometimes, however, you need to cite an independent essay or chapter that is most relevant to your research.
If you cite a chapter or other titled part of a single-author book, include the title of the part first in quotation marks, followed by the designation 'in' and the main title of the book. In the bibliography, include the full span of page numbers for the chapter following the book title. In a note, give the page numbers for the specific reference as you would in any other citation. If the section is the introduction or another generically named section without a specific title, add that term before the title of the book without quotation marks.
If the work you are citing is an essay in a larger edited work, give the author of the section as the first author, followed by the name of the section in quotation marks. This should then be followed by the designation 'in' and the book title, followed by the name of the editor. Works in an anthology should be cited the same way.
Electronic books or ebooks are cited the same as print books.
In addition, include information about the format consulted. Include a URL for books found online. Include database information when found in an academic database.
If downloaded in a specific format, for example from Apple or Amazon, include that information.
Many ebooks do not have fixed page numbers. Avoid using format specific locators in this case.
1. Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 88, ProQuest Ebrary.