Journal articles are different from magazines in that they are scholarly and professional publications. They are intended primarily for academic readership.
Many journal articles are available online through a library database. To cite an online article, include the URL. If the DOI is listed, include that in your entry. If you consulted a commercial database, give the name of the database in place of the URL.
Entries may include: author, article title, journal title, issue information, and page numbers. You may need to include information about an article such as if it was published in a special issue or supplement, or if it was an abstract.
Include author names exactly as they appear in the head of the article. Names in notes are listed in standard order (first name first); in bibliographies, names are listed in inverted order (last name first).
List complete titles and subtitles in quotation marks. Terms normally italicized in text, such as species name and book titles, remain italicized. Terms quoted in the title are enclosed in single quotation marks. Do not add a colon or a period after a title or subtitle that ends in a question mark or an exclamation point. If the title would normally be followed by a comma, like in a shortened note, include both marks.
Titles in languages other than English should be capitalized sentence style according to the conventions of that language. If you add a translation, enclose it in brackets, without quotation marks.
1. Quentin Taylor, "The Mask of Publius: Alexander Hamilton and the Politics of Expediency," American Political Thought 5, no. 1 (Winter 2016): 63, https://doi.org/10.1086/684559.
2. Lisa A. Twomey, "Taboo or Tolerable? Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls in Post-war Spain," Hemingway Review 30, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 55.
3. Twomey, "Taboo or Tolerable?," 56.
4. Antonio Carreno-Rodriguez, "Modernidad en la literature gauchesca: Carnavalizacion y parodia en el Fausto de Estanislao del Campo," Hispania 92, no. 1 (March 2009): 13-14, https://www.jsotr.org/stable/40648253.
Taylor, Quentin. "The Mask of Publius: Alexander Hamilton and the Politics of Expediency." American Political Thought 5, no. 1 (Winter 2016): 55-79, https://doi.org/10.1086/684559.
Lewis, Judith. "'Tis a Misfortune to Be a Great Ladie': Maternal Mortality in the British Aristocracy, 1558-1959." Journal of British Studies 37, no. 1 (January 1998): 26-53. https://www.jstor.org/stable/176034.
Kern, W. "Waar verzamelde Pigafetta zijn Maleise woorden?" [Where did Pigafetta collect his Malaysian words?]. Tijdschrift voor Indische taal-, land-en volkenkunde 78 (1938): 271-73.
After the item title, include the journal title in italics, with headline style capitalization (important words capitalized). Give the title exactly as it appears on the title page or journal website. Do not use abbreviations, although you can remove the initial 'the.' If the official title is an initialism, such as PMLA, do not expand it.
Most journal citations include volume number, issue number, month or season, and year.
Volume and issue numbers
The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not italicized. Use arabic numbers even if the source uses roman numerals. Issue number follows volume number, separated by a comma and preceded by 'no.'.
1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, https://doi.org/10.1086.660696.
Jonescu, Felicia. "Risky Human Capital and Alternative Bankruptcy Regimes for Student Loans." Journal of Human Capital 5, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 153-206. https://doi.org/10.1086.661744.
Beattie, J.M. "The Pattern of Crime in England, 1660-1800." Past and Present, no. 62 (February 1974): 47-95.
Date of Publication
The date of publication appears in parentheses after the volume and issue. It must include the year, and may include season, month, or an exact day. Capitalize seasons in the citation. If an article has been accepted but not yet published, use 'forthcoming' in place of the date and page numbers.
1. Marjorie Garber, "Over the Influence," Critical Inquiry 42, no. 4 (Summer 2016): 735, https://doi.org/10.1086/686960.
Bibliography: Bartfield, Judi, and Myoung Kim. "Participation in the School Breakfast Program: New Evidence from the ECLS-K." Social Sciences Review 84, no. 4 (December 2010): 541-62. https://doi.org/10.1086/657109.
If you cite a particular passage in a note, only give the specific page numbers for that section. In the bibliography, give the full span of the pages for the article. Page numbers follow colons, not commas.
1. Tim Hitchcock, "Begging on the Streets of Eighteenth-Century London," Journal of British Studies 44, no. 3 (July 2005): 478, https://doi.org/10.1086/429704.
Bibliography: Wang, ShiPu. "We Are Scottsboro Boys: Hideo Noda's Visual Rhetoric of Transracial Solidarity." American Art 30, no. 1 (Spring 2016): 16-20. https://doi.org/10.1086/686545.
A journal issue devoted to a single theme is known as a special issue. It carries a normal volume and issue number. If a special issue has a title and editor of its own, include that in the citation. If you need to cite a special issue as a whole, omit the article information.
1. Rajeswari Sunder Raja, "Zeitgeist and the Literary Text: India, 1947, in Qurratulain Hyder's My Temples, Too and Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children," in "Around 1948: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Global Transformation," ed. Leela Ghandi and Deborah L. Nelson, special issue, Critical Inquiry 40, no. 4 (Summer 2014): 440-41, https://doi.org/10.1086/676415.
Sunder Raja, Rajeswari. "Zeitgeist and the Literary Text: India, 1947, in Qurratulain Hyder's My Temples, Too and Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children." In "Around 1948: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Global Transformation," ed. Leela Ghandi and Deborah L. Nelson. Special Issue, Critical Inquiry 40, no. 4 (Summer 2014): 439-65, https://doi.org/10.1086/676415.
Ghandi, Leela, and Deborah L. Nelson, eds. "Around 1948: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Global Transformation." Special Issue, Critical Inquiry 40, no. 4 (Summer 2014).
A journal supplement may also have a title and an author or editor of its own. It is numbered separately from the regular issues of the journal, often with an 'S' as part of its page numbers.
2. Ivar Ekeland, James J. Heckman, and Lars Nesheim, "Identification and Esimation of Hedonic Models," in "Papers in Honor of Sherwin Rosen," Journal of Political Economy 112, S1 (February 2004): S72, https://doi.org/10.1086/3788947.
Ekeland, Ivar, James J. Heckman, and Lars Nesheim. "Identification and Esimation of Hedonic Models." In "Papers in Honor of Sherwin Rosen," Journal of Political Economy 112, S1 (February 2004): S60-S109. https://doi.org/10.1086/3788947.
Cite information from abstracts in a note. Include the full citation for the article, but insert the word 'abstract' into the citation following the title.
1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," abstract, Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749.