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Chicago/Turabian Format Style Guide: Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts

This guide will assist in writing papers using the Chicago or Turabian style in the correct format as well as creating citations.

Artworks and Graphics

Paintings, Sculptures, and Photographs

Cite paintings, sculptures, photographs, drawings, and the like only in notes.  Include the name of the artist, the tile of the artwork (in italics) and date of its creation (preceded by 'ca.' if approximate), and the name of the institution that houses it including location.  Medium and related information can be included if relevant.  For images found online, include a URL.  Whenever possible, consult the item through the website of the institution where the item is physically located.


1. Georgia O'Keeffe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, oil on canvas, Milwaukee Art Museum,

2. Michelangelo, David, 1501-4, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence.

3. Ansel Adams, North Dome, Basket Dome, Mount Hoffman, Yosemite, ca. 1935, silver print, 16.5 x 21.9 cm., Smithsonian American Art Museum, Renwick Gallery, Washington, DC,


Graphic Arts

Print advertisements, maps, cartoons, and so forth should only be cited in notes.  Give any title or caption enclosed in quotation marks, and identify the type of graphic in parentheses if it is not clear from the title.  For undated sources, use the access date.


4. Yu ji tu {Map of the tracks of Yu], AD 1136, Forest of Stone Steles Museum, Xi'an, China, stone rubbing, 1933?, 84 x 82 cm, Library of Congress,

5. Evan Brown, "The 10 Commandments of Typography," infographic, DesignMantic, April 11, 2014.

Live Performances

Cite live theatrical, musical, or dance performances in notes.  Include the title of work performed, the author, any key contributors or performers and an indication of their roles, the venue and its location, and the date.  Italicize the titles of plays and long musical compositions, but put the titles of shorter works in quotation marks, except for musical works referred to by genre.  Include information about the medium for recordings of live performances.


1. Hamilton, music and lyrics by Lin-Manuel Miranda, directed by Thomas Kail, choreographed by Andy Blakenbuehler, Richard Rogers Theatre, New York, NY, February 2, 2016.

2. Simone Dinnertein, pianist, Intermezzo in A, op. 118, no. 2, by Johannes Brahms, Portland Center for the Performing Arts, Portland, OR, January 15, 2012.

3. Artur Rubinstein, pianist, "Spinning Song," by Felix Mendelssohn, Ambassador College, Pasadena, CA, January 15, 1975, on The Last Recital for Israel (BMG Classics, 1992), VHS.



In notes, list the title of the movie (in italics), followed by the name of the director, the name of the company that produced or distributed the movie, and they year the movie was released/created/distributed.  Include relevant information for writers, actors, producers, etc.  Include timings as displayed with the source. If you watched online, include the URL.

In the bibliography, list either under the title of the movie or the name of the director.


1. Dr. Strangelove, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, directed by Stanley Kubrick, featuring Peter Sellers, George C. Scott, and Sterling Hayden (Columbia, 1964), 0:11:43 to 0:14:54,

2. Gravity, directed by Alfonso Cuarón (2013: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014), Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Bibliography: Dope. Directed by Rick Famuyiwa. Open Road Films, 2015. 1 hr., 43 min.


Famuyiwa, Rick, director. Dope. Open Road Films, 2015.1 hr., 43 min.


Television and Radio Programs

For television or radio programs, at minimum include the title of the program, the name of the episode or segment, the date on which it first aired, and the entity that produced or broadcast the work.  You can also include episode number, the name of the director or author of the episode, and (if relevant) the names of key performers.  Italicize the names of the program, but put quotes around the name of episodes.  Finish with relevant information about the medium and a URL if found online.  In bibliographies, programs are usually cited by the title of the series or program.


3.  Mad Men, season 1, episode 12, "Nixon vs. Kennedy," directed by Alan Taylor, featuring Jon Hamm, Elisabeth Moss, and Vincent Kartheiser, aired October 11, 2007, on AMC (Lions Gate Television, 2007), DVD, disc 4.

4. American Crime Story: The People vs. O.J. Simpson, episode 6, "Marcia, Marcia, Marcia," directed by Ryan Murphy, written by D.V. DeVincentis, featuring Sterling K. Brown, Kenneth Choi, and Sarah Paulson, aired March 8, 2016, on FX,

Bibliography: Brady Bunch, The. Season 3, episode 10. "Her Sister's Shadow." Directed by Russ Mayberry. Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC.


Videos and Podcasts

To cite videos other than movies or television programs, adapt the citation accordingly.  Citations of podcasts and videos can usually be kept to the notes.


5. Beyoncé, "Sorry," directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles, June 22, 2016, music video, 4:25,

6. Fred Donner, "How Islam Began," Alumni Weekend 2011, University of Chicago, June 3, 2011, video of lecture,

7. Mike Danforth and Ian Chilling, "F-bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points," April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, produced by Gilliam Donovan, podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46,

Bibliography: Lyiscott, Jamila. "3 Ways to Speak English." Filmed February 2014 in New York, NY. TED video, 4:29.


Sound Recordings

For sound recordings, include as much information as possible to distinguish them from other recordings, including the date of the recording, name of the recording company, the identifying number of the recording, the copyright date, and any relevant information about the medium.  Titles of albums should be in italics; individual selections should be in quotation marks.  Include a URL for an online source.  In the bibliography, sources can be listed by the name of the composer or performer, depending on which is more important to the argument.


8. Billie Holiday, vocalist, "I'm a Fool to Want You," by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf, recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, track 1 on Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 33 1/3 rpm.

9. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, CD.

Bibliography: Rubenstein, Artur, pianist. The Chopin Collection. Recorded 1946, 1958-67. RCA Victor/BMG 60822-2-RG, 1991. 11 CDs.


Video Games and Apps

Use the guidelines for other multimedia to cite video games and apps.  Italicize the titles of games.  Include a version number and information about the operating device required to run the game or app.


10. Gems and Jewels, iPad ed., v. 1.01 (Touchpress, 2011), adapted from Lance Grande and Allison Augustyn, Gems and Gemstones: Timeless Natural Beauty of the Mineral World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).

Bibliography: Grande, Lance and Allison Augustyn. Gems and Jewels. iPad ed., v. 1.01. Touchpress, 2011. Adapted from Lance Grande and Allison Augustyn, Gems and Gemstones: Timeless Natural Beauty of the Mineral World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).


To cite interviews in multimedia formats, treat the person being interviewed as the author and identify the interviewer in the context.  Include the program or publication of the interview and the date or air date of the interview.  Interviews are generally only cited in notes.


11. Bernie Sanders, interview by Rachel Maddow, The Rachel Maddow Show, September 18, 2015, on MSNBC, video, 19:51,



Cite advertisements only in notes or by weaving them into your text.  


12. Fitbit, "Dualities," advertisement, aired February 7, 2016, during Super Bowl 50 on CBS, 30 sec., HTTP://

Texts in the Visual and Performing Arts

Art Exhibition Catalogs

Cite a catalog as you would a book.  In the bibliography only, include information about the exhibition following the publication data.

1. Jennifer Y. Chi, ed., The Eye of the Shah: Qajar Court Photography and the Persian Past (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015), 33.

Bibliography: Chi, Jennifer Y., ed. The Eye of the Shah: Qajar Court Photography and the Persian Past. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015. Published in conjunction with an exhibition of the same name at New York University's Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, October 22, 2015 - January 17, 2015.


Omit publication data in the notes, and include act and scene in place of page numbers.

1. Eugene O'Neill, Long Day's Journey Into Night, act 2, scene 1.

Bibliography: Anouilh, Jean. Becket, or The Honor of God. Translated by Lucienne Hill. New York: Riverhead Books, 1996.

For a literary studies paper or for papers dealing with the analysis of texts, cite plays in the bibliography as you would a book.  Cite passages by division or by page.

Musical Scores

Cite a published score as you would a book.

1. Giuseppe Verdi, Giovanna d'Arco, dramma lirico in four acts, libretto by Temistocle Solera, ed. Alberto Rizzuti, 2 vols., Works of Giuseppe Verdi, ser. 1, Operas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Milan: G. Ricordi, 2008).

Bibliography: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano. Prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder. Rev. ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser, 1960.