Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Chicago/Turabian Format Style Guide: Websites, Blogs, and Social Media

This guide will assist in writing papers using the Chicago or Turabian style in the correct format as well as creating citations.

Website Content

Cite web pages and related content by identifying the following:

  • Author
  • Title of Page (in quotation marks)
  • Description of Site
  • Owner or Sponsor of the Site
  • Publication or Revision Date
  • URL

A time stamp of the source can be recorded if the source includes one.  If no date can be determined, include an access date.  Cite webpages in notes; if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited, include it in your bibliography.

Examples:

1. "Privacy Policy," Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified March 25, 2016, HTTP://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

2. "Balkan Romani," Endagered Languages, Alliance for Linguistic Diversity, accessed June 10, 2016, HTTP://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/5342.

In the bibliography, list a source that doesn't include an author name under the title of the website or the name of its owner or sponsor.

Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016. HTTP://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

Articles from news sites can be cited like newspaper articles.

Blog Posts

Blog posts are cited in a similar way to articles in magazines and newspapers.  Put the title of the post in quotation marks and the title of the blog in italics.  Indicate "blog" in parentheses if it is not clear from the title.  If the blog is part of a larger publication such as a newspaper or website, give the name of the publication after the title of the blog.  

Citations of blog posts can be limited to notes; include in your bibliography if it is critical to your thesis or frequently cited.  If you cite multiple posts from the same blog, you can cite the blog as a whole in your bibliography.

1. Sharon Jayson, "Is Selfie Culture Making Our Kids Selfish?," Well (blog), New York Times, June 23, 2016, HTTP://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/06/23/is-selfie-culture-maiking-our-kids-selfish/.

Bibliography: Germano, William. "Futurist Shock." Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, HTTP://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

Social Media

Social media content is normally cited in the notes, but not the bibliography.  Include in your bibliography if it is frequently cited or critical to your argument.  To cite direct messages, use the method for citing personal communications.  For publicly posted content, follow the following guidelines.

Include:

  • The author of the post
  • In place of a title, use the text of the post.  Quote up to the first 160 characters, capitalized as the original
  • The type of post - this can include a description (video, photo, etc.)
  • The date, including month, day, and year
  • URL

Examples:

1. Junot Diaz, "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume," Facebook, February 24, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

2. Kristaps Licis, February 24, 2016, comment on Diaz, "Always surprises."

Bibliography: Diaz, Junot. "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume." Facebook, February 24, 2016.  https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

Online Forums and Mailing Lists

To cite material from an online forum or mailing list, include:

  • Name of the Correspondent
  • Title of Subject or Thread (in quotation marks)
  • Name of Forum or List
  • Date and Time of the Post or Message
  • URL

Omit email addresses.  Posts on private forums or lists should be cited as personal communications.  Items should normally be cited in a note.

Examples:

1. Caroline Braun, reply to "How did the 'cool kids' from high school turn out?," Quora, August 9, 2016, https://www.quora.com/How-did-the-cool-kids-from-high-school-turn-out/.

2. Sharon Naylor, "Removing a Thesis," email to Educ. & Behavior Science ALA Discussion List, August 23, 2011 (1:47:54 p.m. ET), https://listserv.uncc.edu/archives/ebss-1.html/.