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Chicago/Turabian Format Style Guide: Reference Works and Secondary Citations

This guide will assist in writing papers using the Chicago or Turabian style in the correct format as well as creating citations.

Reference Works

Well known reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedias should only be cited in notes.  Within the note, you can usually omit the facts of publication, but you need to include edition information (unless it is the first edition or no edition is specified). Online sources need to have a URL listed; for undated items, give the access date. 

For a work organized by key terms (such as a dictionary), cite the item (not volume or page number) preceded by "s.v." or "sub verbo" (under the word), and "s.v.v." for plural. 

Works on a disc should include information about the medium.  

For reference works less well know, include a citation in your notes and bibliography.


1. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "ROFL," accessed March 9, 2017,

2. Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. "Dame Margaret Drabble," accessed June 26, 2016,

3. MLA Handbook, 8th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2016), 3.3.2.

Bibliography: Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. CD-ROM, version 4.0.

Aulestia, Gorka. Basque-English Dictionary. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989.


Reviews of books, performances, and so on may appear in a variety of periodicals.  They should usually only be cited in a note.  

Include the name of the reviewer; the words "review of," followed by the name of the work and its author/performer/etc.; pertinent information about location or studio; and the periodical in which the review appears.  If the source was found online, include the URL.


1. Richard Williams, review of Bob Dylan in concert at the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK, Guardian, October 22, 2015,

2. Richard Brody, review of Gravity, directed by Alfonso Cuaron, Warner Bros. Pictures, New Yorker, October 4, 2013.

Bibliography: Cox, Katharine. Review of Covered in Ink: Tattoos, Women, and the Politics of the Body, by Beverly Yuen Thompson. Journal of Gender Studies 25, no. 3 (2016): 349-50.

One Source Quoted in Another

Avoid repeating quotations that you have not seen in the original.  If one source provides a useful quotation from another source, obtain the original to verify the accuracy of the quote.

If the original is unavailable, cite the source as "quoted in" the secondary source in your note and bibliography.