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Chicago/Turabian Format Style Guide: Interviews and Personal Communications

This guide will assist in writing papers using the Chicago or Turabian style in the correct format as well as creating citations.


In general, unpublished interviews should only be published in notes.  Include a specific interview only if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited.  Begin the note with the name of the person interviewed and the interviewer.  Include the place and date of the interview if known, and if there are recordings or transcripts of the interview.

1. David Shields, interview by author, Seattle, July 22, 2016.

2. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J.E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

3. Shields, interview; Spock, interview.

If you cannot reveal the name of the person interviewed, cite it in the form appropriate to the context.  Explain the absence of the name in a note or a preface. "All interviews were confidential, the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement."

4. Interview with a home health aide, July 31, 2017.

In published interviews, the interviewee is cited as an author.  If in a newspaper, journal article, or magazine, cite using the rules for that type of reference.

5. "Edward Snowden Explains How to Reclaim Your Privacy," interview by Micah Lee, The Intercept, November 12, 2015,

Bibliography: Snowden, Edward. "Edward Snowden Explains How to Reclaim Your Privacy." Interview by Micah Lee. The Intercept, November 12, 2015.

Personal Communications

Cite conversations, letters, email or text messages, and direct or private messages through social media only in notes.

The key elements of these notes are the name of the other person, type of communication, and the date of the communication.

1. Roland J. Zuckerman, email message to author, June 1, 2017.